Delegation of authority is a process through which managers establish formal relationships between people in the organization.
How management distributes authority between levels is called delegation. The term means the transfer of tasks and powers to persons who take responsibility for their satisfactory performance.
They must be met to achieve the goals of the organization. In a broad sense, a word delegation is an act that makes a person a leader.
Delegation in management is fundamental
Delegation is fundamental, but it is one of the most confusing and misapplied concepts in governance.
A key point in the delegation is the responsibility assumed by the delegate. It represents the obligation to perform the set tasks.
The delegated person shall be responsible to the principal for their implementation. Each employee enters into a contract with the organization in which he works to perform tasks that are prescribed for the position.
It is important to realize that delegation takes place only in the case of assumption of authority and that responsibility cannot be delegated. A leader cannot dilute responsibility and pass it on to his subordinate.
There is a subtlety here – a person who is assigned the responsibility to solve a task is not obliged to perform it personally. However, it is responsible for its satisfactory implementation.
Taking responsibility for the performance of tasks
When taking responsibility for the satisfactory performance of a task by an employee, the organization is obliged to provide him with all the necessary resources.
In this case, there are organizational powers. The authority is a limited right to use the resources of the organization and to direct the efforts of the authorities to perform certain tasks. Powers are delegated to the position, not to the employee.
Concepts for the delegation process in management
There are two concepts of the process by which delegation is delegated. Classic in which the powers are transferred from the highest to the lowest level of management in the organization.
And Chester Barnard’s concept that the subordinate has the right to refuse the demands of his superior. Bernard defines authority as an order based on which each employee directs his actions and determines for himself what he is obliged to do and what he is not obliged to do.
According to this concept, if the subordinate does not take over authority from his superior, then there can be no talk of handing over authority.
The limits of authority are determined by – the policies, procedures, rules, and job descriptions presented to the subordinate in writing or orally, traditions, customs, customs, and cultural stereotypes.
Management powers determine what an employee has the right to do
Management powers, first of all, determine what an employee who holds a position has the right to do. Here is the essential difference with power, which determines what the employee can do.
Apart from being limited, the powers in an organization are also linear and hardware/staff/. Line authority is transferred directly from the head to a subordinate, he in turn to his subordinate, and so on.
The manager with liner powers
A manager who has linear powers has the right to make certain decisions without consulting other managers. Line managers make the most important decisions in the organization. Reference: “Participating in decisions, Decision Making Process In Management”, https://bvop.org/learn/participating-decisions/
The delegation of linear powers creates the hierarchy of management of an organization. Each hierarchical system is characterized by the so-called chain of command.
However, with linear authority alone, an organization cannot be managed efficiently. The so-called administrative specialists.
They are from a structural unit that develops variants of strategies and plans approved by the line manager, called the administrative apparatus. He is a consultative, servicing / personal / apparatus.
Line management and solving problems
Line management is constantly faced with solving problems that require special qualifications, for which appropriate specialists are appointed.
In this way, the consulting apparatus is formed, the main task of which is to consult the line management in the respective functional area – planning, finance, marketing, etc.
The service / personal / apparatus includes – the secretary, assistant, driver, who support the work of the line manager. Reference: “Trends and features of modern management”, https://www.policymatters.net/trends-and-features-of-modern-management/
The personal service apparatus has no formal authority but has great informal authority concerning direct access to the manager and the possibility of informal influence through formal cooperation.
Hard management powers are – recommended powers, mandatory approvals, parallel powers, and functional powers.
The recommended management powers are available when only the opinion of the respective specialist or his / her advice is used, but whether it will be used is at the discretion of the manager. In the case of mandatory approvals, the line management is obliged to discuss the problem with the administrative apparatus. Reference: “The profession of the manager: How to become one”, https://scrumtime.org/profession-of-the-manager/
Parallel management powers are present when granting extended powers to the administrative apparatus, which has the right to deviate from the decisions of the line management. In the case of functional powers, there is a high degree of uniformity, such as – employment relations, accounting.
The manager can make independent decisions
Here the manager at the functional level can make independent decisions in his functional area, which apply to the whole hierarchy. This is done to reduce the time for decision-making regarding repetitive uniform actions.
Delegation requires effective communication
However, there are also barriers to effective delegation:
- The delusion that this job the manager will do better on his own;
- Lack of leadership skills;
- Lack of trust in subordinates;
- Reluctance to take risks;
- Lack of reliable control.
Some barriers block the process through the fault of subordinates:
- Fear of criticism for mistakes;
- Lack of resources and information for the successful implementation of the assigned activity; “Business skills, management, and internal competencies and a sense of success”, https://w-europe.org/business-skills-management-and-internal-competencies-and-a-sense-of-success/
- The presence of a significant amount of work;
- Lack of confidence;
- Lack of additional incentives.